Фунтофилия - коллекционирование гирь


Previous Entry Share Next Entry
(068) Гири и весы Великобритании. Weights from Great Britain
гиря, весы
funtofil

Государственный поверитель мер и весов, Лондон.


Британская имперская система мер массы

•1 тонна большая (длинная) (long ton) = 20 хандредвейтам (квинталам) = 2240 фунтов = 1016,05 кг
•1 тонна малая (короткая) (short ton, США, Канада и др.) = 20 хандредвейтам малым (центалам) = 2000 фунтов = 32000 унций = 907,185 кг
•1 тонна метрическая (metric ton) = 2204,6 фунта = 0,984 большой тонны = 1000 кг
•1 киль = 8 челдронам =424 хандредвейтам =47488 фунтов =21540,16 кг
•1 челдрон для угля (chaldron) = 1/8 киля = 53 хандредвейтам = 5936 фунтов = 2692,52 кг
•1 вей = 2—3 хандредвейтам = 101,6—152,4 кг
•1 квинтал (quintal) = 1 большой хандредвейт (long hundredweight) = 112 фунтам = 50,802 кг
•1 центал (центнер) = 1 малый хандредвейт (short hundredweight) = 100 фунтам = 45,36 кг
•1 слаг = 14,6 кг
•1 тод (tod, «груз») = 1 квартеру длинному = 1/4 хандредвейта большого= 28 фунтам = 2 стоунам = 12,7 кг
•1 квартер короткий (short quarter, «четверть») = 1/4 хандредвейта малого = 25 фунтам = 11,34 кг
•1 Стоун (stone, «камень») = 1/2 квартера большого = 1/8 хандредвейта большого = 14 фунтам = 6,350293 кг
•1 клов (уст.) = 1/2 стоуна = 1/16 хандредвейта = 7 фунтов = 3,175 кг (ранее величина клова составляла 6,25—8 фунтов = 2,834—3,629 кг)
•1 квартерн = 1/4 стоуна = 3,5 фунта = 1,588 кг
•1 фунт (pound, лат. pondus, сокр. lb) = 16 унциям = 7000 гранов = 453,59237 г
•1 унция (ounce, oz) = 16 драхмам = 437,5 гранам = 28,349523125 г
•1 драхма (dram)= 1/16 унции = 27,34375 гран = 1,7718451953125 г
•1 гран (grain, лат. granum, сокр. gr) (до 1985 года) = 64,79891 мг


Гиря (сувенир) 1 большой хандредвейт (long hundredweight) = 8 стоунов = 112 фунтам = 50,802 кг


Гири - 1 тройский фунт (слева) и 1 фунт эвердьюпойс (справа) - были частью разновеса из пяти гирь, произведенного в Англии и закупленного Уильямом Симсом для Соединенных Штатов в 1837 году.
- Английский золотомонетный фунт (или тройский фунт, англ. Troy pound) равняется 12 тройским унциям или 373,2417216 г.
- Эвердьюпойс (англ. avoirdupois, от фр. avoir de pois — «товары, продаваемые на вес») — система весов, в основе которой лежит фунт, состоящий из шестнадцати унций.

Подробнее - https://www.nist.gov/nvl/pear-shaped-weights


Гиря 1 Фунт. Реальный вес - 453,5 гр. Фото из Инета.



Гири 1 и 1/2 Унции. Георгианская эпоха. Фото из Инета.
Период британской истории, известный как георгианская эпоха, продолжался с 1714 по 1830 г. Своим названием он обязан четырем монархам, правившим в это время: Георгу I, Георгу II, Георгу III и Георгу IV. Кроме того, он включает в себя девятилетний период регентства, в течение которого правил принц-регент, позднее ставший королем Георгом IV.


Queen Anne weights
Although the Royal Mint Museum has many coins – and some coinage tools – from Isaac Newton’s time as Master of the Royal Mint during the early 18th century relatively few items have survived from this period that illustrate the Royal Mint itself. One such item, however, that has come down to us is the handsomely engraved set of troy weights dated 1707 illustrated here.

The date is significant, the weights having been prepared in the wake of the Act of Union with Scotland to ensure that the coinages struck north and south of the border conformed to the same standard. But not only is the set attractive in its own right, it symbolises the importance of accuracy when producing a gold and silver coinage, an element of Royal Mint production that was important to Newton as a scientist.


Этот разновес (1867) был предоставлен Национальному бюро стандартов в 1965 году Уильямом Дж. Оуэном, главным инспектором мер и весов, Брэдфордом, Англия. Когда Оуэн его предоставил, эти гири уже не были актуальными. Когда-то такие меры веса были местными стандартами в Брэдфорде. Набор гирь был очень необычным, состоял из 1 тройского фунта, затем следуют 6 унций, 3 унции, 2 унции, 1 унция, пять гирь в пеннивейтах и шесть гирь в гранах. Некоторые из гирь отсутствуют.

Пеннивейт
Британская единица массы благородных металлов и драгоценных камней в тройской системе = 24 грана = 1,555 г.

Смотреть - https://www.nist.gov/nvl/troy-standards-bradford-england


Набор гирь - 1Ф., 8 унц., 4 унц., 2 унц., 1 унц., 1/2 унц., 1/4 унции. [П1-6]


Гири 7Lb, 4Lb, 2Lb, 1Lb, 8oz, 4oz, 2oz, 1oz, ½oz and ¼oz. Фото из http://home.clara.net/brianp/pics.html


Фото из Инета.


Набор гирь. Фото из Инета.


A set of bell shaped weights descending from 4lbs, 2lbs, 1lbs, 8oz, 4oz, 2oz and l oz. All have verification or inspectors marks. The verification marks are the Elizabethan standard numbered stamp of a royal crown over cipher EIIR with the number 313 (for York) and the year 1965.
http://www.gilai.com/product_579/Set-of-7-English-Brass-Bell-Shaped-Weights.



Набор гирь. Фото из Инета.


Фото из Инета.


Фото из Инета.


Гири. Фото из Инета.


Гиря 1Ф. [П1-5]


Гиря 8 Унций. Фото из Инета.



Шотландская гиря 19 ст.
http://www.gilai.com/product_581/A-19th-Century-Very-Rare-Scottish-Brass-Great-Seal-1Lb-Weight.



Гиря 2 Ф. Фото из Инета

Гиря. Фото из Инета.



Набор гирь. Фото из Инета.


Набор гирь. Фото из Инета.


Фото из Инета.


Фото из Инета.


Гири 2, 1, 1/2 и 1/4 Фунта. [П1-5]


Гири 1 Фунт и 8 Унций. [П1-5]


Гири весом в 1 Фунт. Фото из Инета.


Набор гирь Фото из Инета


Гири весом 360, 180 и 90 гр. Это гири монетные. Любая горсть медных английских монет весом с соответствующую гирю, имеет общую стоимость 1 Фунт стерлингов, 50 или 25 пенсов.


Монетные гири. Англия. Фото из Инета.


Набор гирь. Фирма AVERY. Фото из Инета.
О компании AVERY подробнее - http://funtofil.livejournal.com/42471.html


Гиря 1/4 фунта, свинец. Англия, 17 столетие. Музей Лондона.


Набор гирь. Фото из Инета.


Фото из Инета.


Набор разновесов. Фото из Инета.


Набор разновесов. Фото из Инета.


Набор кухонных разновесов. Фото из Инета.


Разновесы хозяйственные. Фото из Инета.


Фото из Инета.




Разновес. Фото из Инета.


Фото из Инета.


Гиря 14 Ф. Фото из Инета.


Гиря 8 унций. Фото из Инета.


Гиря 4 унции. Фото из Инета.


Гиря 2 унции. 1896 г. Фото из Инета.


http://www.gilai.com/product_592/A-19th-Century-Bronze-Flat-Circular-Weight.



Гиря 1/4 Унции. Фото из Инета.


Гири весом 1 Фунт. Фото из Инета.


Набор гирь. Фото из Инета.


Набор гирь. Фото из Инета.


Набор гирь. Фото из Инета.


Фото из Инета.



Набор гирь. Маркировка GPO (Great Britain Post Оffice). Фото из Инета.


Гиря 1/2 Унции. GPO. Фото из Инета.


Гиря 1/4 Фунта. Фото из Инета.


Гиря 8 унций. Фото из Инета.


Гиря 2 унции. Фото из Инета.


Гиря 8 унций. Фото из Инета.


Фото из Инета.


Тройский фунт — английская весовая единица, употребляемая при взвешивании драгоценных металлов и монет = 12 тройским унциям = 373,242 грамма.


Гиря 11 Фунтов. Фото из Инета.


Гиря 8 Фунтов. Фото из Инета.


Фото из Инета.


Гиря 4 унции. Фарфор. Фото из Инета.
Подробнее - http://funtofil.livejournal.com/12773.html


http://www.gilai.com/product_582/Hand-Made-Avoir-Weight-For-Weighing-Gold.


Гиря 1/4 Унции. Фото из Инета.


Detail engraved inscription on 8oz avoir weight: "Borough of Manchester 1851" on a white background.
Science Museum Group Collection - http://collection.sciencemuseum.org.uk/objects/co8417401/standard-weights-standard-weight


Straight on view of a group of weights on a white background
Science Museum Group Collection - http://collection.sciencemuseum.org.uk/objects/co8417401/standard-weights-standard-weight


Elizabethan weights and measures
This is in the Science Museum in London. The description says:

"Elizabethan weights and measures 1588-1601. These are standard measures for volume, weight and length, made on the instruction of Queen Elizabeth I between 1588 and 1601. Elizabeth's standards were sent to 60 English cities so that - for the first time - all merchants could share the same definition of measurement units.

The queen had recognised that a common set of measurement standards across the country was crucial to commercial expansion, and her reform of Britain's system of weights, measures and currency was wide-ranging."


Набор гирь. Фото из Инета.


Разновес эталонных гирь. Фото из Инета.



Разновес. Фото из Инета.



Набор гирь. Фото из Инета.




Mixed batch of 6 flat circular weights from different periods and materials to demonstrate various verification stamps. The 8, 4 and 2 oz weights were made of brass and bronze during the reign period of King George IV (1820-1830) and after 1826. Verification marks on the three weights includes: the London Guildhall stamp with city arms (shield and dagger in the top left quarter) that was used from 1826 onwards; A Royal standard stamp of a crown over cipher W; The Founders' Company 'ewer'; and the fancy symbol 'A' for avoirdupois. The 1 oz bronze weight was made during the reign period of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) and before the introduction of uniform numbered stamps in 1879. This is evident by the stamp of an early Victorian standard mark with a Royal crown over cipher V.
http://www.gilai.com/product_591/Batch-of-6-Flat-Circular-Old-Brass-and-Bronze-Avoirdupois-Weights.


http://www.gilai.com/product_588/A-Set-of-5-Brass-Flat-Circular-Avoirdupois-Weights.





Mixed batch of 6 flat circular weights from different periods and materials to demonstrate various verification stamps. The 8 and 4 oz weights were made of bronze during the reign period of King George IV (1820-1830) and prior to 1826. Both are verified with the London Guildhall 'dagger' and the Founders' Company 'ewer'. The symbol 'A' for avoirdupois and a royal crown over cipher 'G'. The 2 oz solid brass weight (with the letter S) was made during the reign period of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) and before the introduction of uniform numbered stamps in 1879. This is evident by the stamp of the local authority of the city of Kidderminster. Following the year 1879, a Victorian standard numbered mark was stamped on the weight with a royal crown over cipher VR and the number 224 for the city of Kidderminster. Later, the weight was verified again by the county of Southampton (cipher VR over number 560) and then rejected by an inspector 'H' with the rejection star.
http://www.gilai.com/product_590/Batch-of-6-Flat-Circular-Old-Avoirdupois-Weights.


Nested Bronze Troy weights were usually used in the weighing of gold or silver.
In this set, the sum weight of all seven, is 8 Troy ounces (about 250 grams).
The largest lidded cup is the master cup and it weighs 4 troy ounces (124.5 grams), which is the sum of the other six inner cups. It is marked IIII. The largest inner cup weighs 2 Troy ounces and is marked II. This cup is also marked with a standing lion on its bottom. The next largest weighs 1 troy oz and is marked I and also has the lion on its bottom.
http://www.gilai.com/product_1298/Nested-Troy-Weights-a-Set-of-7


This is a typical 'fleur-de-lis' brass set with 11 cups and a hinged lid. The figures and mass units are impressed on the rim of each cup. The largest lidded cup is the master cup and it weighs 500 gram, which is the sum of the other ten inner cups. The inner cups are marked: 200, 100, 100, 50, 20, 10, 10, 5, 3, and 2 grams. The total adds up to exactly to 1 Kilogram.
http://www.gilai.com/product_578/A-Rare-19th-Century-French-Set-of-Nested-Brass-Cup-Shaped-Metric-Weights.



http://www.gilai.com/product_593/19th-Century-Nested-Brass-Cup-Shape-Troy-Weights.


Экзагии для английских монет. Фото из Инета.


Весы-рулетка. Фото из Инета.


These scales bear various stamped marks including VR and crown, the weights range from 14lb all the way down to half oz. 960mm high, 810mm wide and 260mm deep. Circa 1880.


Весы фирмы HERBERT & SONS C. LONDON. Фото из Инета.


Pooley London & North Western Railway Balance
Original, quality, late 19th century, circular brass balance to weigh 112lb and calibrated in 1lbs. This most unusual example has a thick brass face mounted on a cast iron body, with a ring to the top for hanging and a swivel shackle beneath. The dial has an applied maker's plate detailing "H Pooley and Son Ltd", "Capacity 112lbs", "Class 3" and "Liverpool and Birmingham". The front also has a clear lead custom seal. The reverse also has an applied brass plaque detailing "Pooley and Son Liverpool" and "L&NW 3275", (L&NW' for 'London and North Western Railways). All has been cleaned and lacquered, although the lacquer may be removed at no extra cost. Complete and in good and working order. Dial 8" diameter, scale 14" long and 1.5" front to back.
Click on photo for larger and other views.
Price: £300.00


Set of Cast Iron Shop Counter Scales
Original, quality 1930's set of cast iron grocers or greengrocers shop counter scales in the original paintwork with brass caps to each rocker, the original strainless steel pan and a stack of original cast iron and brass circular weights. The scale is decorated with gold lined detail and "to weigh 28lb" and has a red on nickel maker's plate for "Wilcox and Walsh London N16". The stack of weights comprise the 4lb, 2lb, 1lb, 8oz and 4oz in cast iron and 2oz, 1oz and 1/2oz in brass. All has been cleaned and lacquered, fully overhauled and is in good and working order. A super set of very usable scales. Scale pan 14.25" x 10", total 17" x 14.5" x 11" tall, base 14.5" x 5" and stack weights 4.25" x 5.25". Price is per set
Price: £230.00

Галерея и сайт о гирях Великобритании - http://home.clara.net/brianp/pics.html

Weights & Measures in Tudor & Stewart Times

Chapter 1: England

Although few people in Britain under the age of about 60 will have a comprehensive understanding of the Imperial system of measurement that was used before metrication, traces are still in everyday use, particularly for travelling distances, weights of people, and measures of beer.

However, even those older people probably only retain the most widely used weights and measures. In the period 1485 – 1625, the system of weights and measures was far more complex.

It was the responsibility of local justices of the peace, or the town corporation both to set local trading standards and enforce them.

Bear in mind that the weights and measures differed from town, and all the modern equivalents given below are only to provide a general idea.

Weight

There were three basic systems of weight measurement. Standard was the Avoirdupois Scale, in which a pound, designated lb from the Latin ‘libra’, was divided into 16 ounces (oz). The ounce was sub-divided into 16 drams.

14 pounds made a stone, two stones were a quarter, four quarters (112lb) equalled a hundred weigh (cwt, where c is the Latin symbol for 100), and, finally, 2240lb or 20 cwt was a ton.

Avoirdupois was used for most everyday goods – grain, lead, stone, sand etc.

For fine metals, the Troy Scale was used. A troy pound was lighter than an avoirdupois pound and was used for precious metals and gemstones. The troy pound consisted of 12 ounces, each of 20 pennyweight (there is a link here to the relationship with the monetary pound – more here – hence the symbol dwt with the d standing for the Latin denarius), and a pennyweight could be sub-divided into 24 grains. In total, a troy pound was the equivalent of 5,760 grains, whilst an avoirdupois pound was a full 7,000 grains.

Finally, there was the Apothecaries’ Scale. This was the same as troy weight, but went down to even smaller measures. The ounce consisted of 8 dra(ch)ms, which in turn were each equal to 3 scruples, whilst a scruple was 20 grains.

Chapter 2 : Scotland

As in England the town or burgh council was responsible for ensuring that goods sold in the market corresponded to the agreed weights and measures in the area. There would be a public set of scales or weighing mechanism, called the ‘tron’, usually situated near the market, hence the frequency of ‘Trongate’ as a street name (gate being a Scots or Northern English word for road or way).

Оригинал - http://tudortimes.co.uk/politics-economy/weights-measures

?

Log in

No account? Create an account